Critics of consensus blocking often find that while the option is potentially effective for small groups of motivated or trained people with a sufficiently high degree of affinity, it had a number of possible flaws, particularly the queker model has been adapted by Earlham College to apply to secular environments and can be applied effectively in any consensual decision-making process. However, most groups act as if consensus is the same as a unanimous vote, that is, no one can oppose it. But this is not the case. Consensus is best understood so that there is no strong or disruptive disagreement on the subject. The basic model for reaching consensus as defined by any decision rule is this: about two years ago, I had a brief conversation with Robert Huber, an experienced product manager, explaining why cooperation surpasses consensus. Here`s the recorded conversation: In his book on Wikipedia, Joseph Reagle examines the benefits and challenges of consensus in open and online communities.  Randy Schutt, Starhawk and other direct action practitioners focus on the dangers of apparent concordance followed by actions where group divisions become dangerously obvious. While everyone on Wikipedia has the right to be heard, that doesn`t mean that discussions will remain open indefinitely until we hear about them. Nor does it mean that a consensus should be nullified by an appeal to “Wikipedians there,” who disagree tacitly. American businessmen complained that they had to discuss the idea with everyone, even the janitor, during negotiations with a Japanese company, but as soon as a decision was made, the Americans found that the Japanese could act much faster because everyone was on board while the Americans were struggling with internal resistance.  Among the key elements of the quäker consensus are the belief in a common humanity and the ability to decide together. .